What causes high blood pressure in young adults?

February 20, 2024

What causes high blood pressure in young adults?
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High Blood Pressure in Young Adults

Among young adults (18–44 years old), obesity, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, and excessive salt intake are the key modifiable risk factors for hypertension. Antihypertensive medications and these factors are crucial for the management and prevention of hypertension.

Blood Pressure

The force exerted by the heart’s pumping action on blood channel walls is known as blood pressure. Blood pressure rises as a result of the heart’s contraction and dilation of blood vessels. When the heart slows down, it descends.

Minute by minute, blood pressure varies. It is impacted by posture, medications, nutrition, emotions, body temperature, and activity and rest.

The unit used to measure blood pressure is millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). The blood pressure is considered normal when it is 120/80 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg) or less.

High Blood Pressure

Primary hypertension is the name given to the most prevalent kind of elevated blood pressure. This indicates that there isn’t another medical issue that could be the source of the high blood pressure. Overweight or obese individuals as well as those with a family history of high blood pressure are more likely to suffer from primary hypertension.The lower value is between 80 and 89 mm Hg, while the upper number is between 130 and 139 mm Hg for primary hypertension.

Secondary hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure that results from a medical condition that is discovered.140 mm Hg or more is the upper limit, and 90 mm Hg or more is the lower limit in this kind of high blood pressure.

High Blood Pressure in Young Adults

Young adults frequently have high blood pressure.The prevalence of (other) hypertension risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco use, is higher in younger males.It’s not too late to be affected by high blood pressure, even if you’re a young adult. In actuality, even if they seem healthy, nearly half of persons over 20 have high or raised blood pressure. Even when there are no outward signs of high blood , it shouldn’t be disregarded.

Younger men are more likely than younger women to have other risk factors for hypertension, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, even while risk factors including obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise are growing increasingly prevalent in both sexes.The genetic distinctions between men and women are also important.Although high blood pressure may not feel like it, it slowly deteriorates your body over time and raises your chance of major illnesses.Young adults with high blood pressure, even if it is only elevated and not diagnosed as hypertension, may experience heart failure at an early age.
Main Causes of High Blood Pressure 

Elevated blood pressure can be caused by anything that puts more strain on the arterial walls. Atherosclerosis, or the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol, and other chemicals in and on the arterial walls, can result in high blood pressure. However, atherosclerosis can result from hypertension, or elevated blood pressure.The following diseases and drugs can result in high blood pressure:

  • Heart conditions affecting blood vessels that are present from birth (congenital heart defect)
  • Disorders relating to the adrenal glands
  • Illegal medications
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Certain pharmaceuticals, such as birth control pills, over-the-counter pain relievers with caffeine
  • Cold and sinus remedies, and some prescription medications
  • Diseases of the thyroid

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

Although blood pressure measurements can reach dangerously high levels, most persons with high blood pressure do not exhibit any symptoms. Some hypertensive young adults may have:

  • Headaches
  • Breathlessness
  • Nasal bleeding

These symptoms are not specific, though. They typically don’t show up until high blood pressure gets to the point where it poses a serious or fatal risk.

Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

Following are the risk factors for high blood pressure in young adults:

  • Being overweight or obese is one risk factor for high blood pressure. A higher risk of high blood pressure is associated with obesity. Heart disease and strokes are both made more likely by high blood pressure.
  • High blood pressure runs in the family. If a parent or sibling has high blood pressure, you have a higher chance of developing high blood pressure yourself.
  • Not engaging in physical activity. Gaining weight might result from inactivity. Blood pressure elevation is more likely in individuals who weigh more.
  • Low potassium or high salt (sodium) diets. Two nutrients that the body needs in order to regulate blood pressure are sodium and potassium. Your blood pressure may rise if your diet contains excessive amounts of sodium or little potassium.
  • The use of tobacco products, cigarette smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure can all raise blood pressure.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol has been associated with high blood pressure, especially in males.
  • Among the conditions that can raise the risk of high blood pressure include kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Complications of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can deteriorate and turn into hypertension, a chronic illness. Organ damage can result from hypertension. It raises the risk of renal failure, aneurysms, heart attacks, and heart failure.

Prevention of High Blood Pressure

Treating the underlying cause of high blood pressure, such as kidney illness or a hormone imbalance, may be sufficient to return blood pressure to normal.

Changes in lifestyle are regularly advised by doctors. If you have high blood pressure, your physician may advise you to:

Consume a balanced diet:

  • reduce your intake of salt.
  • eat more fruits, veggies, and low-fat dairy.
  • avoid caffeine, which is present in energy drinks, tea, coffee, and sodas.
  • steer clear of alcohol.
  • engage in regular exercise, aim for three to five times a week, 30 to 60 minutes of exercise.
  • teens who suffer from severe hypertension should see their physician about safe sports and activities to participate in. Certain activities, such as bodybuilding, strength training, or powerlifting, could not be permitted until their blood pressure is more under control.
  • if you currently smoke, give it up, smoking is not recommended for people with high blood pressure, also their automobile or house should be smoke-free.


Treatment for the underlying cause of high pressure in young adults may not always be enough to control the condition. In this situation, your doctor might advise you to modify your lifestyle and give you medicine to lower your blood pressure.Make lifestyle modifications to lower your high blood pressure if your doctor diagnoses you with primary hypertension. Your doctor may recommend medication if lifestyle modifications are insufficient on their own or if they lose their effectiveness.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can I determine whether my blood pressure is high if I don’t have any symptoms?

Check your blood pressure right away if you haven’t had it done before. Schedule a check-up with your physician if it has been a while since your last examination. It is advised that individuals have a medical professional check their blood pressure at least once a year.

When my blood pressure reaches 130/80 or above, what happens?

Your physician will confirm the diagnosis of high blood pressure if your blood pressure is above during two different visits.Your doctor will collaborate with you to address high blood pressure if it is determined to be an issue.

How can I manage my blood pressure?

Eating a balanced diet, exercising frequently, and maintaining a healthy weight can all help lower blood pressure and lower the chance of developing cardiovascular disease in later life.

Disclaimer: We recommend consulting a Doctor before taking any action based on the above shared information.


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