Pelvic Pain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

December 8, 2023

Pelvic Pain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
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Pelvic Pain : Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

For women, pelvic pain is a common issue. Its cause is frequently unknown, and its nature and intensity are subject to change. Sometimes the illness is not visibly present. Pelvic pain can have psychological roots or arise from the genitalia or other organs located in the vicinity of the pelvis. When there is no physical issue, this can exacerbate pain or even create the impression of pain.

Pelvic Pain

Typically, the first question that comes to our mind is where is pelvic pain located? Pelvic pain refers to discomfort originating from one of the multiple organs in the pelvis, the lowest abdomen region. The pelvic organs include the bowel, bladder, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The pelvic bones adjacent to these organs and any surrounding muscles, nerves, blood vessels, or joints may occasionally be the source of pelvic pain. Thus, pelvic pain can have a variety of causes.

Pelvic pain can affect people of any gender and has different causes, even though it is commonly associated with pain around the reproductive organs of women (and those who are assigned female at birth, or AFAB). Women experience pelvic pain more frequently than men do.

Types of Pelvic Pain

There are 2 types of pelvic pain:

Acute Pelvic Pain: If the pain is acute, it indicates that you are experiencing it for the first time.

Chronic Pelvic Pain: When pain is considered chronic, it indicates that it has persisted for longer than six months.

Some of the conditions that can lead to chronic pelvic pain may include:

  • Menstrual cramps
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine fibroids (abnormal growths on or in the uterine wall)
  • Scar tissue between the internal organs in the pelvic cavity
  • Endometrial polyps
  • Cancers of the reproductive tract

Causes of Pelvic Pain

The digestive, reproductive, or urinary systems may be the source of pelvic pain. Certain muscles or ligaments may also be the source of some pelvic pain; this could happen by pulling on the hip or pelvic floor muscles. Another possible cause of pelvic pain is nerve irritation.

Men and women may experience pelvic pain for the following reasons, most of which start or affect the digestive system:

  • Appendicitis
  •  Colon Cancer
  • Constipation
  • Crohn’s Disease
  • Diverticulitis
  • Intestinal Obstruction
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Ulcerative Colitis

Female Reproductive System-related Pelvic Pain:

Pelvic pain can be caused due to complications linked to the female reproductive organs. These problems might include:

  • Adenomyosis- A condition in which endometrial tissue exists within and grows into the uterine wall. Extremely heavy periods and excruciating pelvic pain are common symptoms in women with this condition.
  •  Endometriosis – The condition known as endometriosis is the growth of uterine lining-like tissue outside of the uterus. Some individuals only feel symptoms during their menstrual cycle, while others experience pain at other points in their cycle.
  • Ovarian Mass – Pelvic pain may be caused by an ovarian growth pressing on nearby organs or local nerves. Ovarian cysts, benign ovarian tumors, and ovarian cancer are examples of possible masses.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – An infection known as PID affects the reproductive organs of women. Usually, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is to blame. PID causes pelvic or lower back pain.
  • Uterine Fibroids – Benign (non-cancerous) growths in the uterus are called fibroids. They may result in lower back and pelvic pain
  • Vulvodynia – Unbearable, persistent pain in the vicinity of the vaginal entrance is called vulvodynia.

Pregnancy Related Pelvic Pain:

  •  Ectopic Pregnancy – When a fertilized egg implants into the pelvis or abdomen outside of the uterus, it is known as an ectopic pregnancy. As it gets larger, it presses on surrounding organs and nerves, causing pain and cramping.
  • Miscarriage – This means loss of pregnancy after 20 weeks. A pregnancy loss can also lead to cramping or pelvic pain.
  • Placental Abruption – When there is a placental abruption, the placenta partially or completely separates from the uterine wall. This might cause pain in the pelvic region.
  •  Preterm Labour – Preterm or premature labor is labor that begins before 37 weeks in pregnancy and can cause pelvic pain.

Menstrual Related Pelvic Pain:

  • Menstrual Cramps: Pelvic pain can result from menstrual cramps, which are felt in the lower region of the pelvis.
  • Mittelschmerz: Lower abdominal pain that is one-sided and related to ovulation is called mittelschmerz.

Urinary System-Related Pelvic Pain:

Some problems in the urinary system that may cause pelvic pain are:

  • Interstitial Cystitis
  • Kidney Infection
  •  Kidney Stones
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)


Pelvic pain also might be due to health issues such as:

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Inguinal Hernia
  • Past physical or sexual abuse
  • Pelvic floor muscle spasms
  • Prostatitis

Symptoms of Pelvic Pain

There may be warning signs or additional symptoms in addition to pelvic pain. Among the most typical signs of pelvic pain are:

  • Vaginal bleeding, spotting or discharge
  • Menstrual Pain
  • Dysuria (painful urination)
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Bloating or gas
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Pain during sex
  • Fever or chills
  • Hip Pain
  • Pain in the groin area

Diagnosis of Pelvic Pain

A medical professional will examine your symptoms and medical history to determine the cause of your pelvic pain and where the pelvic pain is located. The cause of pelvic pain may also be ascertained by a physical examination or other tests. Several possible diagnostic instruments are as follows:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Pregnancy tests in females of reproductive age
  • Vaginal or penile cultures to check for sexually transmitted diseases
  •  Abdominal and pelvic X-rays to find where the pelvic pain is located
  •  MRI
  • Bone density screening (a special type of X-ray to determine the strength of bone)
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy (procedure allowing a direct look at the structures in the pelvis and abdomen to find where the pelvic pain is located
  • Hysteroscopy (procedure to examine the uterus) to find where the pelvic pain is located
  • Stool test (checking a stool sample for microscopic blood)
  • Lower endoscopy (insertion of a lighted tube to examine the inside of the rectum and part or all of the colon)
  • Ultrasound (a test that uses soundwaves to provide images of internal organs) to find where the pelvic pain is located
  • CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis (scan that uses X-rays and computers to produce an image of a cross-section of the body) to find where the pelvic pain is located

Treatment of Pelvic Plan

The cause, severity, and frequency of pelvic pain are among the variables that affect how it is treated. Typical therapies for pelvic pain consist of:

  • Medicine – Sometimes, pelvic pain is treated with medicines, including antibiotics, if required.
  • Surgery – If the pain is caused by a problem with one of the pelvic organs, surgery or other treatments may be necessary.
  • Physical Therapy – In certain situations, the doctor might suggest physical therapy to relieve pelvic pain.

Reducing the risk of pelvic pain

It is not always possible to avoid pelvic pain. However, one can lower the risk by following these suggestions in their day-to-day activities:

  • Regular exercise
  • Eating more fiber
  • Stretching muscles
  • Visiting the doctor regularly for pelvic checkups. 


For women, pelvic pain is a common issue. Its cause is frequently unknown, and its nature and intensity are subject to change. Although pain around a woman’s internal reproductive organs is commonly associated with pelvic pain, pelvic pain can also affect men and have a variety of causes.

Pelvic pain can originate from pain in the pelvic bone, non-reproductive internal organs like the bladder or colon, or it can be a sign of an infection. However, in women, pelvic pain may very well be a sign that something may be wrong with one of the pelvic reproductive organs (cervix, fallopian tubes, uterus, or vagina).


       Frequently Asked Questions

1. When to see a doctor regarding pelvic pain?

Even though pelvic pain is a common issue, people should see a doctor if they experience it frequently or if it does not go away with home remedies. If a person feels severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, or loses consciousness, they should get medical attention right away.

For any queries or worries regarding recent or persistent pelvic pain, it is best to get in touch with a doctor.

2. Are there any home remedies to cure pelvic pain?

There are several at-home remedies you can try to relieve the symptoms of chronic pelvic pain like taking over-the-counter medicines, making time for exercise, applying heat over the area that is painful via a heating pad or warm compress, stopping smoking, and taking supplements.      

3. Why do I need a pelvic exam?

These tests are conducted for various purposes, such as:

  • to ensure the health of the reproductive organs while pregnant
  • to search for indications of infections
  • to identify where the lower back or pelvic pain is located

To screen for bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), doctors frequently perform pelvic exams to find if and where the pelvic pain is located.

4. What happens during a pelvic exam?

The female reproductive and sexual organs are physically and visually examined during a pelvic exam. It enables a doctor to search for indications of disease and infection and to locate where the pelvic pain is located. The doctor performing the exam may be a gynaecologist or an OB-GYN.

Disclaimer: While the home remedies mentioned in the above blog may seem effective and practical, it is important to note that no scientific evidence supports their efficacy. Therefore, consulting with an expert in the field is highly recommended.





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