What is a Neurologic Disorder?

June 27, 2022

What is a Neurologic Disorder?
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Our nervous system helps us see, smell, and move around the world. It organises, explains, and connects us to the things we see and hear.

In other terms, Neurological disorders are a category of illnesses that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves that branch out from these areas and into other body parts.

Neurological diseases affect the brain and the nerves in the body. Structural, biochemical, or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, or other nerves can cause various symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, memory loss, confusion, pain, and an altered level of consciousness.

There are many possible causes of neurological problems, including genetic disorders, congenital abnormalities or disorders, infections, lifestyle or environmental health problems, malnutrition, brain injury, spinal cord injury, or nerve injury. In addition, there are many types of neurological disorders, some of which are more common than others. On the other hand, mental disorders primarily involve abnormalities of thought, feeling or behaviour, which can cause distress or impairment of function.

Neurological disabilities encompass various disorders, such as epilepsy, learning disabilities, neuromuscular disorders, autism, ADD, brain tumours, and cerebral palsy. Some neurological conditions are genetic, appearing before birth. Neurological disabilities can be caused by various factors, including tumours, degeneration, trauma, infections, and structural defects. Regardless of the cause, all neurological disabilities resulting from damage to the nervous system. If the damage is located in specific areas of the body, the extent to which those areas of the body are impacted can vary.

There are over 600 neurological disorders with various causes. Some of these reasons include:

  • Genetic disorders
  • Congenital anomalies
  • Infections
  • Brain injury


Headache is one of the most common types of pain. There are many types of headaches, including migraine, sinus headaches, cluster headaches, and tension headaches. The most common type of headache is tension, which is caused by tight neck, jaw, scalp, and shoulders muscles. The common trigger factors of headaches include stress, lack of sleep, consumption of alcohol and missing out on meals.


There are two main types of seizures: generalised seizures that affect both sides of the brain and focal seizures that only affect one specific brain area.

The two types of generalised seizures are:

  • Absence seizures: Absence seizures can cause symptoms such as blinking rapidly or staring into space.
  • Tonic-clonic seizure: Tonic-clonic seizures can cause crying out, falling on the ground, muscle spasms or cramps, and loss of consciousness.

The two types of focal seizures include

  • Simple focus seizure May cause an unusual taste or odour and twitching
  • A complex focal seizure can cause confusion or disorientation.

Alzheimer’s’ disease and dementia

Dementia is a group of symptoms associated with a progressive decline in brain function. There are various forms of dementia. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease.

Signs of AD include:

  • Amnesia
  • Lost or misplaced items
  • Wander and get lost
  • Repeated questions
  • Impaired judgment
  • Difficulty handling money and paying invoices
  • It takes time to complete daily tasks
  • Loss of spontaneity and sense of initiative
  • Increased anxiety, aggression, or both
  • Changes in mood and personality

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by a loss of nerve cells in the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. This can lead to the following symptoms:

  • Muscle tremors that typically start in the hand or arm
  • Muscle stiffness that can affect movement and facial expressions
  • slowed movement, which may manifest as slow and shuffling walking

Parkinson’s Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s Disease. There is currently no known cause for the loss of nerve cells in PD.


Stroke is the medical term for interrupting the blood supply to part of the brain. If the brain doesn’t have enough blood flow, its cells can’t get the oxygen and nutrients they need to function and survive.

There are three types of stroke:

  • Ischemic stroke resulting from a blood clot in a blood vessel that supplies the brain
  • Hemorrhagic stroke resulting from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) results from a temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain.

As cells within the affected brain area die off, they can no longer perform their vital functions. Therefore, the stroke symptoms a person experiences will depend on the area of the brain affected.

The signs of a stroke can include

  • Sudden confusion
  • Difficulty understanding speech
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Difficulty seeing in one or both eyes
  • Severe headache
  • Numbness or weakness on one side of the body
  • Difficulty walking and dizziness

ALS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a rare neuromuscular condition that affects the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Doctors aren’t sure what causes ALS, but genetics and environmental factors may contribute to the disease. The symptoms of muscle weakness and twitching, tight and stiff muscles, slurred speech, and difficulty breathing and swallowing can be challenging to diagnose and often require the evaluation of a neuromuscular neurologist.

People also ask

1. What are the top 10 neurological diseases?

  • Acute Spinal Cord Injury
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s Palsy
  • Brain Tumors
  • Cerebral Aneurysm
  • Epilepsy and Seizures
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Headache

2. What are the top 5 neurological disorders?

  • Headache
  • Stroke
  • Seizure
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Dementia

3. What are the types of neurological disorders?

Neurological disabilities include various disorders, such as epilepsy, learning disabilities, neuromuscular disorders, autism, ADD, brain tumours, and cerebral palsy.

4. What are four neurological symptoms?

  • Altered smell or taste.
  • Burning feeling.
  • Confusion or cognitive changes.
  • Fainting, lethargy, or change in your level of consciousness.

5. How do you know if you have a neurological disorder?

Physical signs of neurological problems may include partial or complete paralysis, muscle weakness, seizures, unexplained pain, or numbness. Spasticity is when muscles become tense and rigid, and your reflexes may be exaggerated. Your movements may be affected by this injury.

Disclaimer: We recommend consulting a Doctor before taking any action based on the above shared information.



Department of Neurology

Department of Neurology

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